Sleeve type used mainly in ladies styles but is also used in unisex styles. Standard tee sleeve length is approximately to the elbow. Cap sleeves would fall midway between the elbow and the shoulder.
Yarn that has been cleaned, aligned and formed into a continuous untwisted strand but has NOT gone through additional spinning processes like combing or ring-spinning.
Preliminary process in yarn spinning. Fibers are separated and made into more parallel-untwisted strand called SLIVERS. This process also removes most of the impurities and a certain amount of short or broken fibers.
A lightweight plain colored and natural or white weave fabric usually of cotton or rayon, or a blend of these.
Typically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. Cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, then turning the edges under and fusing them in place, creates a straight placket with no raw edges. All that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.
A term used to describe fabrics of sufficient color retention so that no noticeable changes in shed takes place during the "normal" life of the garment.
Cotton yarn that has been combed to remove short fibers and to straighten or arrange longer fibers in parallel order.
A secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fibers after carding. This is a more refined cotton than what carding produces.
A process that compacts the space between fabric fiber pockets. This will prevent cotton shrinkage.
Included to efficiently dissipate excess body heat and perspiration vapor.
Cotton is named for a shrubby plant (genus Gossypium) of the MALLOW family, for the fibers surrounding the seeds, and for the cloth woven from the spun fibers. Each of the seeds, which are contained in capsules, or bolls, is surrounded by white or cream-colored downy fibers that flatten and twist naturally as they dry. Cotton is tropical in origin but is now cultivated worldwide. It has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times.
Two needles are used, to overlap the threads underneath, reinforcing the seams with a smooth layer of threads. Provides a look similar to double needle stitching.
Generic name for man made fibers derived from polyacrylonitrile. Features a soft , woolly hand; wash and wear performance; brilliant high shade colors; good sunlight and wrinkle resistance.
Air Jet Spinning
During Air Jet Spinning, yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. In this process , the fibers are stretched to the appropriate size , then fed to the air jet chambers where they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the reverse direction in a second chamber. The yarn is stabilized after each operation.
Yarn produced this way pills less because the spinning process creates a tighter outer wrap which holds otherwise loose polyester fibers (as seen in Open End Spinning) in place. Fewer loose polyester fibers means less pilling.
A popular design for knitted fabrics, both hand and machine knit. Two or three colors generally are used in a diamond-shaped pattern.
When fabric is folded double and sewn down. Seen on tee shirt collars and staff shirt sleeves.
A type of collar made of the same material as the shirt. The two basic kinds of this collar are the simulated, made of two pieces, or the true, made of four pieces.
Stiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. Also used to stabilize embroidery, edges.
Used to denote thickness and strength in synthetic fabrics (polyester and nylon). The smaller the number of denier the thinner the strand of polyester and the larger the number the thicker the strand of polyester.
A cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill constructions. The wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing. Double-needle A double row of stitching at the seam.
Double-Needle Stitched A finish used
on a sleeve and/or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows
of visible stitching. It gives the garment a cleaner, more finished look and
A cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing and pulled to tighten or close an opening or drawstring.
A seam that is cut and lays below the shoulder of the garment.
A design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front, sometimes referred to as an "elongated" back.
An alternating color or striped effect.
A fabric softening process that gives a soft hand to fabric and wears the color down very slightly. Does not have a washed out look like pigment dying.
A process through which fibers, yarns, and fabrics are passed to improve their appearance, feel and/or performance in preparation for their end use.
50 percent cotton/50 percent polyester fabric; also referred to as polycotton.
A fabric with a pile or napped surface, sometimes of a unit construction; commonly used in sweats.
Used to reinforce the waistband in shorts and sweatpants.
Is to woven shirts as a set-on placket is to staff shirts.
The small placket on the arm of a woven sport shirt to create more ease of movement.
The size of the collar changes proportionally with the size of the shirt.
Greige (Gray) Goods
Knitted or woven fabrics of all fibers in an unfinished state, after they have been woven and before dyeing or finishing.
Triangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.
Half Moon Sweat Patch
The inset back yoke of many upscale-type golf shirts. While called a "sweat patch," it is actually there for decoration purposes and extra collar support.
The "feel" of a fabric's texture, weight, drape and finish when felt within your hands (i.e. its tactile qualities).
Blended fibers combined to create a vari-colored effect; e.g. heather gray. Heathered fabric typically contains 3 fibers: cotton, polyester or rayon.
Fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.
A shirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.
A twilled fabric with a herringbone pattern, namely a pattern made up of rows of parallel lines, which in any two adjacent rows slope in opposite directions.
High Profile Cap
A high-profile cap's arch begins at 3 inches.
A knit fabric that is characterized by a wider waffle-like appearance, which actually allows the wearer more comfort.
Interlock is a variation of rib knit construction. Similar to a Jersey knit except both front and back of the fabric look identical.
Double knit construction makes this a thicker knit fabric.
Interlock is the tightest weave, gives the smoothest surface and the finest hand. The fabric is extremely soft, firm and absorbent.
Dyed yarn knit on sophisticated equipment to produce a desired pattern and/or texture in the fabric and/or collar.
Two color yarns create subtle tone variations on the surface of the fabric. This will allow exceptional embroidery surfaces.
A type of fabric with a flat appearance, knit on a circular, single-knit machine; its principal distinction is that it is not a fabric with a distinct rib.
A large front single pocket, with side openings allowing both hands to be inserted, meeting in the Middle.(See Also muff pocket)
A fabric formed by the inter-meshing of loops of yarn creating a stretchable fabric.some knit fabrics are pique, jersey and fleece.
Self-fabric loop sewn into the center of the back yoke seam for a functional styling detail.
Artistic interpretation of a company's sign or symbol. These figures can be copyrighted or trademarked. Permission is needed for duplication.
Any crown of a cap that is less than 4" in height (usually the arch begins at 2 to 3 inches). Not to be confused with unstructured. There are low profile caps that are structured.
Elastic yarn comprised of at least 85% of segmented polyurethane thus giving it the ability to stretch.
A texture that involves a body color with contrasting highlight flecks on the surface. These flecks give the garment a heather-like appearance.
Classification for fabric of 22 to 24 single yarn, where the number of yarn denotes the overall fabric weight.
A process that eliminates all of the small "hairs" of cotton yarn or cloth, which adds to its luster. This yarn is then additionally run through a caustic solution, which further smoothes and adds gloss to the yarn surface by burning off additional fabric hairs.
This process slightly pre-shrinks yarn and makes it stronger. Also helps with dye absorbency to achieve a richer color.
Extremely fine synthetic fiber used to produce soft, lightweight fabrics which are resilient and resist wrinkling. Clothing made with microfibers has a luxurious drape and the body retains its shape and resists pilling. Most often used in outerwear with water resistant coatings.
Most other fabrics have 70-80 tendrils of yarn per strand. Microfiber has 216 tendrils per strand which makes it very strong and durable.
Did you know? Micro-fiber Polyester is made from recycled plastic bottles that are cleaned, crushed, melted and extruded into fibers. Every bit as warm and durable as virgin polyester, but takes less processing energy.
A pique fabric characterized by a prominent, all-over mini geometric texture on the fabric face and a jersey stitch on the fabric's back. The softest of all pique fabrics due to the way it is knit.
A shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.
A large front single pocket, with side openings allowing both hands to be inserted, meeting in the middle. (See also kangaroo pocket)
A process that eliminates some manufacturing steps needed for ring-spun yarn. This cost-saving process is passed on to the garments produced.
Ounces of Fabric
A measurement of fabric weight, referring to the weight for one square yard of fabric. Needed to make an apples-to-apples comparison between styles, especially with tee shirts and fleece (sweatshirts).
A soft, somewhat porous textured cotton weave that creates a soft, nubby texture. Created by weaving a single filling yarn woven over and under two smaller warp yarns.
Peach Finish or Skin
A sueded finish with a soft hand, resulting from sanding or chemical treatment of a fabric.
Peruvian Pima Cotton
Peruvian Pima Cotton is often referred to as the "cashmere of cotton"- the softest, smoothest, "silkiest" fabric you can wear. Shrinkage standard for Peruvian Pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label.
Term used when the knitted cloth is dyed prior to being assembled into a finished product.
Accumulation of fibers on the surface of a fabric, caused by wear and washing. In 50/50 fabric, cotton fibers tear and become tangled with the stronger fibers on the surface of the garment. A higher cotton content results in less pilling.
High-quality yarn made by plying yarns spun from long combed staple (meaning the length of the individual fibers). This type of cotton is a very soft and strong fiber that accepts dye well. Its natural color is yellow as opposed to white for other cotton.
Two fine yarns that are wrapped together for a fine and luxurious hand.
A very narrow ridge or rib in a fabric (from 16 to 23 wales to the inch) Example: Pinwale corduroy.
A narrow tube of fabric, sometimes enclosing a cord, used for trimming seams and edges.
Pique (pronounced pee-kay)
A knit fabric that is characterized by its waffle-like appearance. Has a distinct right and wrong side.The right side resembles a Honey Comb or a waffle and the wrong side is flat and smooth.Has a course firm hand an generally uses fine yarns. Sometimes called LaCoste because that company popularized its use
The construction that forms the opening in the front of the shirt, from the neck down, allowing the wearer to put it on and take it off with ease. The slit is usually secured with buttons.
The simplest, most common of all basic weaves, in which a pick or filling yarn passes over the first end or warp yarn, under the second and so continuously.. The surface provides a smooth surface for printing
Knitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. The pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. This is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.
A type of fabric that has a smooth twill texture with a very soft "silk like" feel. This fabric will also protect against 95% of the UV rays from the sun.
A medium-to-heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Made by weaving one weft (vertical) yarn over and under each warp (horizontal) yarn, alternating each row. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.
Process that allows polyester to blend with cotton to give a garment a dyed appearance. Powder dyed garments ensure consistent color, wash after wash.
Pre-shrinking is not about pre-washing the fabric. It is a process where the bolted, uncut fabric is run through rollers containing tiny nubs that press the fabric over the nubs, creating grooves which condense it. This puckered shrinking effect then allows for real shrinking to occur when washed, without it being detected. Therefore, the fabric - not theshirt - is pre-shrunk before it is even cut and sewn.
A type of sleeve stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck; it makes for ease of arm movement.
A special dye used on a garment which produces, when the label's wash instructions are followed, a more set-in color tone.
Reinforced Placket (X-Box)
A square or rectangular sewn area used to strengthen and reinforce the bottom of a placket.
The addition of thermosetting resins applied in the finishing process, used to control the shrinkage of a fabric and add durable press characteristics.
A stretchy fabric normally used for trim. This stitch is formed by two sets of needles at right angles to each other, which provides more elasticity than jersey knit. The face of the fabric appears to be the same as the backside.
Ring-spun Cotton, Ring-spun Yarn
Yarn that is reproduced on ring frame equipment. Tends to be a finer yarn with a softer hand when knit.
A very fine woven fabric, often nylon, with coarse, strong yarns spaced at intervals forming a box so that tears will not spread.
A very soft finish. May be run through an actual belt sander so that the fabric is extra soft before it is cut and sewn.
A rounded neck, larger than a crewneck, but smaller than a boatneck.
A collar that is knit in a circle and is set in circular. There are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made T-Shirts.
A style of sleeve that is sewn into the shoulder, as opposed to the neck. The seam is straight up and down from the shoulder seam to the underarm (as opposed to the neck in raglan sleeves).
Refers to a towel's finish. A sheared surface is created clipping the loops on one side of the towel. Sheared terry is often referred to as having a velour finish. The shearing process creates a plush and smooth finish, which is great for printing or embroidery.
The weight of the fabric has a big impact on the overall appearance of the shear. A heavier weight fabric enhances the velour appearance because there is more material to shear.
Shoulder seams, as well as neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams, and reduces separation of the seams.
Approximately 4 - 5 % on most 100 % cotton garments after pre-shrinking or compacting.
These are the seams that join the front and back together. This feature is not found on T-shirts and some placket shirts.
Single Needle Stitch
or Single Needle Tailoring
A stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway which provides each seam with twice the strength of a standard seam.
A single-needle shoulder seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion. This process takes three times longer than the conventional method, however the seam is flatter, more comfortable and much more durable.
Soil Release/Teflon finish
A fabric finish that makes it less likely for a stain to remain on the fabric and makes it possible to remove a stain more easily. Staple
The actual length of a cotton fiber.
Staple, Staple Length
A measurement of a sample of fibers, the longer being the higher quality yarn characterized in a softer more lustrous fiber and the shorter being lower quality or coarser.
Stitches per Inch
The measure of sewing stitches in an inch on a seam. The consistency of sewing more stitches per inch provides a flatter, neater seam and makes the seam stronger.
A finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling.
Garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers.This process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. Different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.
A method of subliming a dye pattern, through the use of heat, onto polyester fabric from a paper carrier.
A very smooth and luxurious fleece that is made with an 80/20 cotton and polyester blend; a unique finishing process wherein the fabric is gently "sanded," which causes the fleece to become very soft.
A dyeing method which creates a rugged or aged effect.
A design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. The term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.
A golf shirt style with no side seams. The bottom is rounded all around.
Characterized by a diagonal rib. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable, firm fabric.
Two strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.
The front of the hat or cap that extends out from the front panel and acts as a sunshade. Also, a type of headwear that consists of the peak or sunshade only so that the top of the head is exposed. When referring to a full cap, visor is interchangeable with peak.
Triangular 2-ply patch of material sewn to the front of the neck for decorative purposes.
The ability of fabric to withstand penetration by water. Conventional waterproof fabrics are generally coated with chemicals or laminated with a film that closes the pores in fabric. (See waterproof/breathable).
Ability to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. There are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.
The ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Most water repellent garments have a coating to achieve water repellence.
A treatment to fabric that actually allows water to "bead" and fall off a garment.
A loose term referring primarily to a fabric's wind-resistant and water-repellent properties. Water-resistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. The greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.
Cuffs on short sleeve garments formed from a single ply of ribbed fabric with a finished edge. Fabric for welt cuffs is knit in a bolder stitch construction than that of standard 1 x 1 ribs.
Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other. Woven Fabric is when yarns are woven in horizontal and vertical positions to form a fabric, usually a rigid fabric.
The basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying.
The application and curing of wrinkle free may occur before or after the garments are produced. "Precured wrinkle free" means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. Because "postcure wrinkle free" means the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because it is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.
The dyeing of yarn before weaving or knitting.
Yarn Size / Count
A method of expressing the specific length or size of a yarn. The higher the number, the finer the yarn and the lower the number the coarser the yarn.
Contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.